# Foundations

Before working on the specifics of a data project, it is important to establish a solid understanding of the characteristics of each of the levels in the “Data, Information, Knowledge, and Insight Hierarchy (DIKI)” and the roles each of these levels have in deriving insight from data. In Chapter 2 Data, we will explore the data and information levels drawing a distinction between two main types of data and then cover how data is structured and transformed to generate information that is fit for statistical analysis. In Chapter 3 Analysis, I will outline the importance and distinct types of statistical procedures that are commonly used in text analysis. Chapter 4 Research aims to tie these concepts together and cover the required steps for preparing a research blueprint to guide the implementation of a text analysis project.